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Increase in the Estimated Graduation Rate Using Census 2000 Data under Various Assumptions

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Notes: Authors’ calculations based on Census 2000 data (IPUMS). All estimates are weighted and race categories are mutually exclusive. Calculations are for the 20−24 year old population. Total GED recipients are estimated from GED testing service data. The recent immigrant category contains only those who are in the civilian non-institutional population and who emigrated to the U.S. after 1990. Those still enrolled in high school are excluded from calculations. The percentage of GEDs who are recent immigrants is estimated from CPS October data. Estimates of GEDs who are incarcerated or in the military are obtained from BJS and DOD data, respectively. The bias calculations are computed sequentially so that those belonging to multiple groups are only counted once. The order of the categories excluded matches the column order in each table.

The overall graduation rate is increased by 7.4 percentage points when GED recipients are counted as high school graduates. The increase is greater for males than for females, in part due to the high rate of GED certification among males in prison. Excluding GED recipients lowers black graduation rates more for blacks than for whites. The overall black rate falls by roughly 2 percentage points more than the overall white rate after excluding GED recipients. 23 Due in large part to the disproportionate number of black males obtaining GED credentials in prison, the greatest bias occurs in the black male estimates—more than 10 percentage points.

There has been an explosion in the growth of the incarcerated population since the early 1980s. 24 In 2002, the total incarcerated population exceeded 2 million people. Novica Amethyst singlestone ring Pretty Posy PtSPuV
Minority males, especially young black males, have been disproportionately affected by tougher anti-crime measures. Nearly one out of every ten black males age 18−24 is now incarcerated. It is estimated that more than one-third of all black male high school dropouts ages 20−35 were in prison on an average day in the late 1990s – a higher proportion than is found in paid employment ( Fine Jewelry Sterling Silver Textured X 47mm Hoop Earrings x2nliT

Educational attainment among the prison population is extremely low. 26 Of all prisoners, seventy-eight percent are uncertified high school dropouts or GED recipients. Furthermore, 56 percent of the incarcerated high school completers obtain that status through GED certification. 27

Excluding the prison population has only a small effect on the overall graduation rate, increasing it by slightly more than 1 percentage point ( Table I(a) ), but has more substantial impacts on race and gender comparisons. 28 Overall male rates are biased upward by 1.8 points when prisoners are excluded while overall female rates are virtually unchanged. Excluding the prison population decreases the estimated black-white gap in high school graduation rates by 2.4 percentage points. This change is even greater when the sample is limited to males. The black-white male gap is biased downward by nearly 4.6 points when the prison population is excluded, as it is in computing status completion rates based on CPS data. no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. Please upgrade your browser. LEARN MORE »

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The Upshot | The Opioid Crisis Is Getting Worse, Particularly for Black Americans


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2016 drug overdose deaths per 100,000 residents
In counties with fewer than 10 drug overdose deaths, the map combines observed totals with modeled estimates .

The epidemic of drug overdoses, often perceived as a largely white rural problem, made striking inroads among black Americans last year — particularly in urban counties where fentanyl has become widespread.

Although the steep rise in 2016 drug deaths has been noted previously , these are the first numbers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to break down 2016 mortality along geographic and racial lines. They reveal that the drug death rate is rising most steeply among blacks, with those between the ages of 45 and 64 among the hardest hit.

Drug overdose deaths by race

Drug deaths among blacks in urban counties rose by 41 percent in 2016, far outpacing any other racial or ethnic group. In those same counties, the drug death rate among whites rose by 19 percent. The data, released on Thursday, suggests that the common perception of the epidemic as an almost entirely white problem rooted in overprescription of painkillers is no longer accurate, as fentanyl, often stealthily, invades broader swaths of the country and its population.

Urban counties are those classified by the N.C.H.S. as large central metropolitan areas. Rural counties are those classified as nonmetropolitan or as small metropolitan areas.

Driven by the continued surge in drug deaths, life expectancy in the United States dropped for the second year in a row last year. It’s the first consecutive decline in national life expectancy since 1963. Drug overdoses have now surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of 55 .

In Washington, D.C., the emergence of fentanyls caused the rate of drug deaths to double in a single year. The rate of drug deaths there is now on par with those in Ohio and New Hampshire. It’s an unsurprising consequence of an epidemic that is both widespread and extremely localized. If fentanyls enter the drug supply in one area, deaths can accumulate rapidly. Drug deaths are also up sharply in cities like St. Louis, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Jacksonville, Fla.

Dr. Andrew Kolodny, the co-director of opioid policy research at Brandeis University’s Heller School for Social Policy and Management, said it appeared that many of the African-Americans who died were older men who had become addicted to heroin during a previous epidemic in the 1970s. “Despite beating the odds for the past 40 to 50 years,” he said, “they’re dying because the heroin supply has never been so dangerous — increasingly it’s got fentanyl in it or it’s just fentanyl sold as heroin.”

Shifts in the drug death rate by state

Given the limited time I saw him play in preseason, and the 24 minutes Wednesday at Toronto, the jury is still out on whether Drummond is an improved defender. I would like to think he's smarter, and with a guy that size and that athletic that's half the battle.

Q: Why didn't Boban play more during preseason? Is Van Gundy trying to hide him? Also, what drew the staff to Mamadou as an NBDL project? -- Mistah Root, via Twitter .

Q: Why didn't Boban play more during preseason? Is Van Gundy trying to hide him? Also, what drew the staff to Mamadou as an NBDL project?

A: Another Boban question. That's two weeks in a row.

I wouldn't characterize the 7-foot-3 Marjanovic playing in four preseason games as Van Gundy trying to "hide him." No one on this Pistons coaching staff would agree thatMarjanovic should be playing ahead of Aron Baynes.

Marjanovic possesses raw skill and the unteachable trait of height, but that doesn't mean he's ready for the 18-20 minutes per game a backup plays just yet. Baynes has shown reliability with his eight points and three rebounds per night, and while you might get that on some nights with Marjanovic, it's going to be a crapshoot on others.

So why throw him out there nightly when you know what you're getting from Baynes? Sure, it's looking like this will be his last season in a Pistons uniform, but I have to assume Van Gundy and his staff will integrate Marjanovic more as the season progresses.

As for Mamadou N'Diaye, the 7-foot-6, 30--pound center waived over the weekend and headed for Grand Rapids, I think you answered your own question.

Pistons notes: Andre Drummond OK after taking errant elbow to the jaw

Detroit dropped its season opener against the Toronto Raptors, losing 109-91.

Q: There seems to be an inordinate number of broken noses in practice this season. Anything we should be worried about? -- Michael C., via email.

There seems to be an inordinate number of broken noses in practice this season. Anything we should be worried about?

A: Unless a concussion is involved, Michael, no. Broken noses are fairly common in the game of basketball (I broke mine in high school diving for a loose ball) and often an unintended consequence for aggressive play.

That said, four over the course of a month is a bit much. Darrun Hilliard and Michael Gbinije both suffered theirs early in training camp, with Tobias Harris and Aron Baynes joining the group on consecutive days last week.

There was some concern Baynes, one of two Pistons players sporting protective masks, may have suffered a concussion when he took an elbow from rookie Henry Ellenson. But he checked out OK.

All four players missed have missed relatively little time, so beyond discomfort and the adjustment of having to wear a mask, they had little effect on the Pistons' bottom line.

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D ante Castiglione stalked through the doors of a glass-walled office tower on the edge of downtown Buenos Aires, just a few hundred feet from the old port district. In the crowded elevator, he shook his head and muttered under his breath about the stresses of the day and his profession. “I swear, this job can kill me,” he said, his eyes cast downward.

On the 20th floor, he hustled into an impersonal, windowless office and quickly removed the tools of his trade from his backpack and set them on the desk: locked blue cash box, cellphone and clunky Dell laptop with the same yellow smiley-face sticker that he puts on all his electronics. Then he unbuckled the fanny pack from around his waist, which contained the most important part of his business: bricks of $100 bills and 100-peso notes.

This room, rented for the day, was not one of Castiglione’s regular haunts. He mostly drifts among the old cafes in Buenos Aires, where the bow-tie-wearing waiters serve small glasses of seltzer water with each coffee. In his line of business as a money-changer, temporary meeting places are preferred; they make things harder for would-be thieves, whom he has so far avoided. On this Friday in late February, Castiglione had run around the city in his camouflage-patterned sandals, trying to distribute cash to some clients and pick it up from others. Once back in his temporary office, his outdated LG phone alternately chirped, buzzed and sang with incoming text messages and emails.

Ordinarily, Castiglione would have help. His 18-year-old daughter, Fiona, often deals with customers, but she was about to give birth to her first child. Her twin brother, Marco, who used to make cash runs, was now focusing on school. So Castiglione was alone, his stress evident in the sweat on his forehead and the agitation on his face. When his business partner, who lives in Rosario, Argentina’s third-largest city, called to ask why he hadn’t taken care of one particularly insistent client, Castiglione erupted in frustration.



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